The word Gwadar is composed of two Balochi words. The world “Gwad” meaning air and “Dar” meaning door. Therefore meaning door of air. Markan region which surround Gwadar was resided by unknown Bronze Age people who settled in few oases. Latterly it became Gedrosia region of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. It is believed that the founder of Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great had conquered the region. During the homeward march of Alexander the Great in 325 B.C, Nearchus his admiral led a fleet along modern Makran coast and indicated that the area was mountainous and dry occupied by Fish-eater a Greek word rendering of ancient Perisan phrase “Mahikhroan” from which the modern word Makran was derived. Selecus Nicator. one of Alexander’s general ruled the area after the fall of Alexander’s empire, in 303 B.C hand over to Maurya dynasty.
In 644 A.D after the conquering of Persia Muslim forces under the command of Hakim bin Amr al Taghlabi reached into Makran district of Balochistan and the area was conquered. Hazrat Omer bin Khitab(R.A) , the second caliph ordered Hakin bin Amr al Taghlabi that for the time being no further attempt should be made to extend the conquest and Markan should be the easternmost frontier of Muslim territory. In 711 A.D town of Gwadar was captured by Muslim army under Muhammad bin Qasim. In next centuries the area was occupied between different Iranian and Indian subcontinent kingdoms including the Safavids and the Mughals. In the late 16th century Portuguese explorers captured Gwadar. In the following centuries various local Baloch tribes rule the area.
In 1783 A.D Sultan Bin Ahmad( sultan of Muscat) exiled with his brother Saad Bin Ahmad. Sultan Bin Ahmad starts communicating with Khan of Qalat and told him about his interest to settle there. The port of Gwadar was granted to Sultan Bin Ahmad by Nasir Khan I, of Ahmadzai family of the Brohi ethnic group of Kalat. in 1784. Sultan Bin Ahmad managed to get the throne of Muscat and the possession of the Gwadar was also kept by him. Sultan Bin Ahmad nominated a wali (an Arab deputy) at Gwadar and send him the order to build a castle in order to safeguard side of Gwadar Bay.
This area came to the attention of British after the first Afghan war. British Government after compromising from Sultan to use the Gwadar port they facilitated Muscat to retain the hold of Gwadar. In 1861 The area was visited by Major Goldsmith (British Army) and he appoint an Assistant Political Agent. Control of Gwadar was remained in the hand of territory of Oman during British rule. In 1869 there established first telegraphic link between Gwadar and Karachi.
There was establishment of Telegraph offices at Pasni and Gwadar. In 1894 Post office was established in Gwadar and in 1903 at Pasni by the British Government. After the independence of Pakistan, in 1947 Makran State was joined in Pakistan excluding area Gwadar and its surrounding. Tribal Chief of Markan, Kharan and Lasbela joined Pakistan. After some months Khan of Kalat desired to join Pakistan. At that time Kalat was landlocked because the Gwadar was not under the domain of Khan of Kalat. The people of Gwadar raised their voice to join Pakistan. Government of Pakistan with the Help of United States Geological Survery conducted a geological survey in 1954. United States Geological Survey reported that the cape of Gwadar fit for the deep sea port. Request was sent to the Sultan of Muscat and Oman for giving the procession of Gwadar to the Pakistan. After four years of dialog between Sultante of Muscat and Oman, Sultante of Muscat and Oman sell Gwadar to Pakistan for 3 Million US $. After the period of 174 years of Omani rule on Gwadar on 8 December 1958 Gwadar became the part of Pakistan.
On 7th September 1958, Malik Feroz Khaan Noon Prime Minsiter of Islamic Republic of Pakistan addressed the nation on Radion Pakistan the news of Gwadar pocession. On 22 September 1958 the offical announcement was made about the pocession of Gwadar and thus the Gwadar became the part of Pakistan.
In 2005 the Grwadar Port project started. One of the four berths was completed. In 2008 there was start process of anchoring. First ship from Canada brings about 52000 tons of Wheat. The nine addational berths has to be built int the phase two.
Today Gwadar become the one of the speedly growing city and to become trade hub of the country, an important industrial zone and the strategicall important deep sea port city of the world.